Thursday, 7 May 2015

power in government






POWER:
DEFINITION OF POWER:   power may be defined as the capability to affect another’s behavior by the threat of sanction.
Forms of power
1.     Political power: the elected president or prime minister of a state possess political power. It is derived from constitution and the people
2.     Economic power: an individual in the possession of the economic resources could use such to influence issue in a state
3.     Military power: the armed forces- army, air force and navy control the instrument of violence in a country
4.     Physical power: it is the application of force in compelling obedience
AUTHORITY:
Meaning of authority: it is refers as the formal or legal right to make and enforce laws or policies which the citizens obey.
Kinds of authority:
1.      Institutional authority: this is a group of individuals who legitimately occupies public office with capacity to determine public goals and policies and direct the execution e.g school principal, native authority, head of state or government authority
2.      Functional authority: this is the power which accrues to a group of people or an individual as a result of the position he holds in an organization
LEGITIMACY:
Meaning of legitimacy: is a political concepts which refers to the acceptance and recognition by the citizens of a country
FACTORS THAT DETERMINE LEGITIMACY
1.     Good reliable leadership
2.     Good government
3.     Legitimacy through periodic election
4.     Custom and tradition
5.     Foreign policy objective
SOVEREIGNITY
Meaning: sovereignty means the supreme power and authority of the state over the citizens.

TYPES OF THE SOVEREIGNTY                    
1.     Legal sovereignty: this is the body that make the law and enforces same in the state
2.      Political or popular sovereignty: it refers to that body which is supreme in a state
3.     De facto sovereignty: this is refer to the body or group of people who use force to make citizens obey their will, after overthrowing the legitimate sovereign of the state through invasion or revolution
4.     De jure sovereignty: this type of sovereign is base on law its application as opposed to physical exercise or use of force
5.     Internal sovereignty: this is refers to supreme power of the state has to make and enforce laws within its area of authority
Limitation of a sovereignty state
1.     The constitution
2.     The electorate
3.     Public opinion
4.     International organization
5.     Resources
6.     Custom and Tradition
Democracy










Communalism
Meaning: communalism is a political and economic arrangement with emphasis on collectivity
Features of communalism
·         Collective ownership
·         Community development
·         Self-government
·         Decision-making
·         Landed property
·         Relationship
·         No room for exploitation
Socialism
Meaning: socialism may be defined as a social, political and economic system in which the state owns and control the means of production exchange of goods and services

Features or characteristic of socialism
·         means of production
·         nation’s wealth
·         free education and free medical service
·         uniformity in price
·         production
·         prevention of waste
·         private exercise
·         completion
Merits of socialism
·         job security
·         industrial harmony
·         exploitation
·         welfare
·         unity
·         issue of class
Demerit of socialism
·         no competition
·         control of economy
·         the economy
·         absence of choice
·         division of labor
·         creativity
·         dictatorship

Communism
Meaning: communism maybe defined as political and economic system in which the community through common ownership, collectively control al the means of production of goods and service, exchange and distribution

Characteristic of communism
·         common ownership
·         the use of force
·         one party system
·         dictatorship
·         centralized economic
·         classless society
·         control of means of production
Capitalism
Meaning: capitalism maybe defined as an economic system in which the means of production, exchange and distribution of goods and services are in the hands of the private individuals

Features of capitalism
§  consumer sovereignty
§  production
§  ownership of the means of production
§  profit
§  sourcing for capital
§  competitive market
Advantages of capitalism
·         Competition
·         Specialization
·         Choice
·         Initiatives
·         Democracy in nature
·         Economic and political growth
Disadvantages of capitalism
·         Exploitation
·         Profiteering
·         Unemployment
·         Rivalry
·         Crime
·         Wage-slave
·         Price system
·         Strike action

Mixed Economic
Meaning: mixed economic system maybe defined as an economic system that accommodates two different ideologies (capitalism and socialism)  
Characteristic or features of mixed economic system
·         Competition
·         State and private individuals
·         Means of production
·         Rule of law
·         Class system
·         Democracy

Feudalism
Definition: feudalism maybe defined as the identification of landed property with sovereignty
Characteristic of feudalism
·         Holding of land
·         Bond
·         Sovereignty
·         Obligation
·         Land control
·         Death of a vassal
·         Annual attributes

Merit of feudalism
·         Order and personal loyalty
·         Frame work
·         Self-reliance
·         Spirit of liberty
      Demerit of feudallism
·         Weak central government
·         Confusion
·         Disobedient of common law
·         State of anarchy
·         Disintegration of state
Fascism
Definition: fascism maybe defined as a form of government handed by a dictator, in which government have a total control over all activities in the state, and personal liberty are denied of the people
Features of fascism
·         Supremacy of the leader
·         Autocratic tendency
·         Limitation of political participation
·         Superior of the state
·         The state economic is highly centralized
·         Imperialistic tendency


Totalitarianism
Meaning: totalitarianism maybe defined as a form of government in which the state has absolute control of everything, including all aspect of the citizen’s life
Features of totalitarianism
·         Absence of constitution
·         Dictatorship
·         Individual freedom and liberty
·         Suppression
·         Economic
·         Terrorism and oppression
·         One party system
Nazism
Definition: Nazism maybe defined as a form of government  in which the state has a total control over the cultural, social, economic and political activities of the people with their fundamental right being denied.
Features of Nazism
·         Totalitarian
·         The philosophy of the national socialist party
·         Education
·         A one party state
·         Victimization
·         Concentration of power
·         Full authority vested on the leader
Oligarchy
Meaning: oligarchy maybe defined as a form of government that places political power in the hands of a few people
Forms of oligarchy
·         Authoritarianism : it is defined as a form of government  in which are expected and compelled to summit blindly to the ruler
·         Aristocracy : is a form of government in which the best citizens rules
Merit of aristocracy
Ø  Quality
Ø  Ruling class
Ø  Natural institution
Ø  Conducive
Demerit of aristocracy
Ø  Cruel and hardship administration
Ø  Rigidity
Ø  Theocracy
Ø  Plutocracy
Ø  Autocracy




TYPES AND CHARACTERISTIC OF GOVERNMENT

Unitary Form of Government
Meaning: this is a form of government as the one in which all power and authority for the exercise and the function of running of a state are concentrated in the hand of a single government. In this respect, the powers are not shared between the central government and any component unit.
Features of unitary system of government
·         Best practice in a homogenous state
·         Delegation of functions
·         Small country
·         Parliamentary supremacy
·         Flexibility
·         No constitution division of power
Reason for adoption of unitary system of government
·         Homogenous factor
·         Small country
·         Control and accountability factor
·         Adequate support to the government
·         Absence of tribal grouping
Advantages of unitary system of government
·         Less cost to operate
·         Quick action
·         Flexible constitution
·         Promote strong government
·         No conflict of authority
·         Unity
·         Few personnel in government
 Disadvantages of unitary system of government
·         Poor attention to the local area
·         Dictatorship
·         Small and homogenous state
·         Development
·         Overloaded
·         The issue of minority
·         Unemployment
Federal system of government
Meaning: a federal system of government is one in which there is constitutional division of powers among the different levels or three tiers of government (federal, state/region, and local government)
Reason for the adoption of federal system
·         Nearness of the federated units
·         Size of the country
·         Fear of the minority
·         Security
·         Common historical background
·         Geographical continuity
·         Economic factor
·         Common political association
The main characteristic of a federal system of government
1.      Constitutional division of power
2.      Supremacy of the constitution
3.      Separation of power
4.      Supremacy of the court
5.      Equal representation
6.      Grassroots political participation
Merit of federal state
·         Integration of different groups
·         The issue of autonomy
·         Federalism brings government closer to the people
·         Supremacy of the constitution
·         Decision making process
·         Employment opportunity
·         Reduction in work load
·         Safe guard of the interest of the minority
Demerit of a federal state
·         Possibility of conflict
·         Costly to run
·         Duplication of function
·         Rigid constitution
·         No uniformity in administration
·         Uneven development
·         Neglect of the minority
·          Ethnic disharmony
·         Threat of secession
Presidential system of government
Meaning: presidential system of government may be defined as one in which the head of
state of a country is also the head of government
FUNCTION AND POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT AS THE HEAD of  STATE
1.     Assent
2.     Visitors
3.     International conferences
4.     Ceremonial functions




THE FUNCTION OF THE PRESIDENT AS THE HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
1.      Head Of State And Government
2.      Department of government
3.      Advisers
4.      Armed forces
5.      Preparation of annual budget
6.      Policy making
Characteristic of presidential system of government
·         Popularly elected
·         Appointment of cabinet members
·         Fixed term of office
·         Impeachment
·         Supremacy of the constitution
·         Check and balance
Advantages of the presidential system of government
Ø  Best materials are given political appointments
Ø  Check and balance
Ø  Popularly elected
Ø  Separation of power
Ø  It is democratic
Ø  Weakness or failure are easy to identified
Disadvantages of a presidential system of government
Ø  Delay in the execution of programme
Ø  Impeachment process maybe difficult
Ø  Problems may arrived between the executive and the legislature
Ø  Lobbying
Ø  Costly to operate
Ø  No security tenure for ministers
Check on the power of the executive








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